History of Coffee Makers. At the same time France and Britain had belatedly seen that the only effective policy against German expansion was as strong an alliance as possible, and they too now sought Soviet support. The second, which came later, was the claim that they had in fact secured unprecedented increases in production. During the 1930’s the public began to feel the effects of the Great Depression, many designers were restricted in experimenting with new fashions due to the fall in the economy and the rise in employment. On February 18, 1937, Stalin’s old ally and Politburo colleague Ordzhonikidze committed suicide. The industrial, engineering, and economic cadres, including those of the railways, were heavily purged. When it was clear that the war was lost, Soviet support was withdrawn. At the same time in foreign policy Stalin turned to the bourgeois democracies as a counterweight to Germany. Events of 1930. There was justifiable mistrust on both sides, and the Western powers handled the negotiations reluctantly and clumsily. The purges touched virtually every Armenian family. During the 1930’s the public began to feel the effects of the Great Depression, many designers were restricted in experimenting with new fashions due to the fall in the economy and the rise in employment. From the early 1930s onwards Stalin ruthlessly tightened his grip on the country. It is impossible to estimate such intangibles as the level of genuine enthusiasm among the Komsomols sent into the industrial plants or how long such enthusiasm lasted. At this time a further social and economic component of the Stalinist system became very important. Bukharin, Rykov, and others, among them the former police commissar Yagoda, confessed to several murders, including those of Kirov and the writer Maxim Gorky, as well as to treason, espionage, and so on. Already crippled by the debt they accrued from World War One, the European nation faced even tougher times following the ripple effects of Wall Street’s stock market crash. Finally, on December 27, 1932, came the reintroduction of the internal passport, denounced by Lenin as one of the worst stigmas of tsarist backwardness and despotism. Learn how and when to remove this template message, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet Union, 16th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), "Igor Netto Bio, Stats, and Results | Olympics at Sports-Reference.com", "Soviet Union and Russian Players' in the World Cup Final Tournaments", "Статья из книги Ф.Раззакова "Свет погасших звезд, "Sergey Popov Bio, Stats, and Results | Olympics at Sports-Reference.com", "Рыжкин Владимир Алексеевич. In May 1935 a Franco-Soviet treaty of mutual assistance was signed, and a Soviet-Czechoslovak treaty followed a few weeks later, though this treaty was only to take effect if France also came to the aid of the country under attack. After the executions the only survivors of Lenin’s last Politburo were Stalin and Trotsky, the latter in exile in Mexico. The 18th Party Congress in March 1939 marked the final transformation of Soviet politics. All independence of mind on the part of any of the Stalinist leadership had effectively vanished. Because the USSR was the only communist state at the time, it had minimal trade contact with the rest of the world. In literature the dogmatic RAPPists were discredited, and a new Union of Soviet Writers held its first Congress in 1934 under the new doctrine of “Socialist Realism.” Although the new policy was less overtly restrictive of the arts, this too was used for the rest of the Stalin period as a criterion for silencing or purging independent voices. But in any case the West was offering a pact that might or might not deter Hitler and that might lead to Soviet involvement in an uncertain war if it did not; whereas Hitler’s offer was of a great increase in Soviet territory and, at least for the present, peace. A vast publicity campaign ensued, and Stakhanovites emerged everywhere. It had no effect, and in the spurious elections called under its articles in December 1937 there was only one candidate for each seat. Joseph Stalin had shared power with Zinoviev and Kamenev in the time after the death of Lenin (1924) and he had no intention of ever being put in that position again. To cope with the large-scale arrests, special extra-legal tribunals were set up, in particular the notorious NKVD “troikas,” which sentenced hundreds of thousands of people to death in their absence. This was to be supported by a socialized agriculture. The officer corps as a whole lost about half its members. There had been show trials even in early Soviet times, including that of the Socialist Revolutionaries in 1922 and the Shakhty case in 1928. In fact none of the targets had been reached, or even approached. At the end of 1932 it was announced that the First Five-Year Plan had been successfully completed. Veterans march on Washington—most leave after Senate rejects payment of cash bonuses; others removed by troops under Douglas MacArthur. However, the real breakthrough happened in 1930 when universal primary education was introduced in the USSR. 30s were characterized by Red Terror, or Stalinshina, which took millions of lives. However, this difficult time period did not stop women from flocking to the shops to enjoy the new fashion craze that was arising. The major factions opposing Stalin had been defeated by 1930. And there were, from Stalin’s point of view, further signs of insubordination. A third response to the Depression was totalitarian communism. And it was a concept—organizational, ideological, inspirational, and, it might almost be said, transcendental. The plenum’s main decision was the arrest of Bukharin and Rykov. But a decision was then taken to systematically utilize their labour. On the industrial side the 1930s were to be a period of Sturm und Drang. In its initial form it prescribed goals for 50 industries and for agriculture and provided some relation between resources and possibilities, but over the period that followed it was treated mainly as a set of figures to be scaled upward. And he had, in any case, for several years been sounding out the possibility of an alternative policy based on accommodation with Hitler. At the same time, pay and rations were linked to productivity. This was given to Japan by the Treaty of Versailles. The local leaderships in Leningrad, in Ukraine, and elsewhere were almost annihilated. (It should be noted that from 1926 to 1934 the chairman of this commission did not serve in the Politburo: Ordzhonikidze 1926–30; Andreyev 1930–31; Rudzutak from 1931.) The purges in the USSR started in the mid-1930’s and continued throughout the late 1930’s. Preferential rations for “shock brigades” were introduced, and in 1932 the then very short food supplies were put under the direct control of the factory managers through the introduction of a kind of truck-system for allocation to workers on the basis of their performance. From 1928, in harmony with the increasing shift to the left at home, foreign and Comintern policy once again became radicalized, with the emphasis on the treason of the Social Democrats of the West. Between 1929 and 1932, some 12.5 million new hands were reported to have entered urban work, 8.5 million of them from the countryside (though it was ruled that kulaks should not be given jobs in the factories). But there was certainly an important element of genuine enthusiasts, and the remainder were at least obliged to behave as such. Starting with the Kansas Securities Act in 1911, states adopted a variety of laws to protect investors from fraud and raise capital for business. At first these approaches bore no fruit, but in his policy speech to the 18th Party Congress in March 1939, Stalin announced that the U.S.S.R. would not help “warmongers” who wanted others to “pull their chestnuts out of the fire,” and Maksim Litvinov, the spokesman for collective security, was removed as People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs a few weeks later. In all not fewer than some 5 million people were arrested, of whom no more than 10 percent survived. Zinovyev, Kamenev, and several score of their followers were arrested and sentenced in closed court to jail terms as having “political responsibility” for (though not yet direct involvement in) the murder. 6th January » The first Diesel engine diesel-engined automobile trip is completed, from Indianapolis Indianapolis, Indiana, to New York City New York, New York. World War 2 began in the 1940s and ended in 1945. A similar ultimatum was issued to Finland, but the talks broke down, and on November 30, 1939, the U.S.S.R. attacked the country and immediately set up a Democratic Republic of Finland, headed by the communist Otto Kuusinen. Top. These are striking figures, though they did not change the U.S.S.R. into an urbanized country in the Western sense. The 16th Party Congress signaled the end of the Right “deviation” as the 15th Congress had marked that of the Left. The industrial growth rate originally laid down was 18–20 percent (in fact, this had already been achieved, at least on paper). Under the Secret Protocols of the Pact (as amended later in the month) the Soviet Union received western Ukraine and western Belorussia, together with the three Baltic states, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Nevertheless, during this period a number of important industrial enterprises were completed, though there was much waste as well. The following lists events that happened during 1930 in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. And others came, running from unemployment and eager to help build socialism. The 16th Party Congress signaled the end of the Right “deviation” as the 15th Congress had marked that of the Left. And these cases were presented as the crucial element in the country’s public life. In August 1936 the NKVD set up the Zinovyev-Kamenev trial (to be followed by two similar trials in 1937 and 1938). Plans outlined by Jospeh Stalin in 1928 for the development of the Soviet Unions economy. In 1936 a new constitution (often called the Stalin constitution) came into effect, guaranteeing all manner of human rights. Hitler’s accession to power in Germany had been facilitated by Moscow’s refusal to let the German Communist Party cooperate against him with the Social Democrats and others. In the 30s, just like the other peoples of the Soviet Union, Armenians suffered from a large-scale campaign of political terror launched by Joseph Stalin. During 1937 and 1938 the terror reached its climax. Stalin arranged the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany on August 23, along with the German-Soviet Commercial Agreement to open economic relations. While previous purges under Stalin involved the persecutions of kulaks (wealthy peasants), Nepmen (people who engaged in private enterprise during the New Economic Policy of the 1920s), clergymen, and former oppositionists, the Great Purge is characterized by imprisonments and exec… The USSR also experienced a major famine in 1946–48 due to war devastation that cost an estimated 1 to 1.5 million lives as well as secondary population losses due to reduced fertility. The system expanded further and became a regular feature of Soviet life. The Five-Year Plan had not been finalized by the time it was announced in April–May 1929, though it had been expected to come into operation six months earlier. What Happened to Spanish Children Sent to the USSR in the 1930s? Oddly. And Stalin, who had appeared indispensable during the crisis, now seemed to many to be unsuited to leadership in a more peaceable era. The fuse was first lit at the beginning of the 1930s, when Japan's aggressive Kwantung Army—on its own initiative—occupied China's Manchurian … During the NEP there was a reduction in the number of prisoners, who probably only numbered some tens of thousands at the end of the decade. The 17th Party Congress, assembling in January 1934, was described as the Congress of Victors. In 1928, Stalin instituted a planned economy. The system became institutionalized. Meanwhile, not only in the U.S.S.R. but in the communist movement the world over, “Stakhanovite” became the favourite word for a “shock worker” in any economic—or political—field. This unpopularity could not be expressed in a normal fashion, but there were many press reports of sabotage of, or assaults on, Stakhanovites by “backward” workers. Even in 1940 just over two-thirds of the population was classified as rural and just under one-third as urban. In U.S., Congress sets up Reconstruction Finance Corporation to stimulate economy. Japan 1920's and 1930's Jun 28, 1919. In 1933, he created the Central Purge Commission, which publicly investigated and tried members of the Communist Party for treason. The mass graves of the victims remained secret until the late 1980s. The FBI under J. Edgar Hoover went after gangsters, and Franklin D. Roosevelt became synonymous with the decade with his New Deal and "fireside chats." However, this difficult time period did not stop women from flocking to the shops to enjoy the new fashion craze that was arising. Development of the Soviet Union in the 1920's and 1930's Introduction The Soviet Union is also officially known as the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). 1914: World War I breaks out in the Balkans, pitting Britain, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, USA and Japan against Austria, Germany and Turkey (400,000 Russian soldiers die in 1914 alone) 1916: Russia has already suffered almost two million deaths in WWI . A secret appendix to the pact gave Eastern Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Bessarabia and Finland to the USSR, and Western Poland and Lithuania to Nazi Germany. But meanwhile the U.S.S.R. had established a further claim to the allegiance of the European left. The Germans invaded Poland on September 1, and Soviet troops entered the eastern part of that country on September 17. Timeline of Germany (1930s) Jan 30, 1933. A group of important figures debated replacing him as general secretary by Kirov, while retaining him in some more honorary post. In March 1938 came the third Moscow Trial. On the other hand, the great Dneproges dam was a generally successful hydroelectric project on the largest scale. 1924-1929: Joseph Stalin consolidates power; inaugurates first Five-Year Plan, collectivizes agriculture, industrializes; famine returns. It was charged that the assassin was a member of a Zinovyevite terrorist group in Leningrad, all of whom were promptly shot. Сборная России по футболу", "Кузнецов Анатолий- Биография - Актеры советского и российского кино", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1930_in_the_Soviet_Union&oldid=972178165, Articles needing additional references from August 2020, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 August 2020, at 16:32. Extravagant claims were made and continued to be issued until the late 1980s. February 18, 1930. The Communist Party itself was ruthlessly purged. This momentous decade ended with the beginning of World War II in Europe with Nazi Germany's … Thousands of writers, artists, scientists and political leaders were executed or exiled. From about 1928-1953 the Soviet Union was a Stalinist dictatorship. These years had in fact seen the establishment of a new social and economic system. The method as stated was no more than a rationalization (in the Taylorian or Fordian sense) of the arrangements for clearing debris, keeping machines ready, and so on, and in fact it involved a large effort by a support team of de-emphasized assistants. On August 7, 1932, the death penalty was introduced for theft of state or collective property; this law was immediately applied on a large scale. This was enhanced when, in the autumn of 1938, France and Britain were instrumental in having Czechoslovakia accept the Munich Agreement, the first step to that country’s disintegration and annexation, while the U.S.S.R. appeared to be the sole, though cheated, defender of collective security. Over the next few years opposition was reduced to a few party groups who clandestinely discussed the removal of Stalin and the reversal of the disastrous economic policies: Sergey Syrtsov (candidate member of the Politburo), Besso Lominadze, and others in 1930; Mikhail Ryutin and other Rightists in 1931–32; Aleksandr Smirnov and others in 1932–33. The USSR in the 1930s showed the benefits of having a planned economy. Zinovyev, Kamenev, and 14 others confessed to terrorist plots in conjunction with Trotsky and were shot. Oddly. The same can be said of the Magnitogorsk foundries and other great factories. Some suffered steep, others small, production declines; some recovered slowly, others more quickly. In September 1934 the U.S.S.R. joined the League of Nations. Development of the Soviet Union in the 1920's and 1930's Introduction The Soviet Union is also officially known as the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. The Soviet Union had 13 percent, and Germany was third at 11 percent. By the 1930s, and thanks to the Depression, that faith in globalisation’s ability to spread the wealth evenly had shattered. These were all fruitless, being exposed and denounced on short order. This reflected the Soviet desire of territorial gains. World War 1 began in 1914 and Great Depression happened in the 1930s. The effects were long-lasting. Arizona scientists reveal their newest discovery -- a ninth planet they name Pluto, … Bukharin was accused of planning to murder Lenin in 1918, though he denied this particular slander. 1914: World War I breaks out in the Balkans, pitting Britain, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, USA and Japan against Austria, Germany and Turkey (400,000 Russian soldiers die in 1914 alone) 1916: Russia has already suffered almost two million deaths in WWI . But it was linked with the policy of payment by piecework, intended to set the individual worker’s targets in industry higher than was normally possible, and was highly unpopular. The same applied in all the professions. One result was that there were continual organizational problems. The plan may be considered in two main aspects. From November 1932 a single day’s unauthorized absence from work became punishable by instant dismissal. However, the real breakthrough happened in 1930 when universal primary education was introduced in the USSR. The treaties guaranteed that there would be no interference in their internal politics. Starting in March it rapidly developed a mass character. Era of 1920's The act of the Russian Revolution which occurred in the 1917 led to the downfall of the Russian empire. Despite deep-seated mistrust and hostility between the Soviet Union and the Western democracies, Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 created an instant alliance between the Soviets and the two greatest powers in what the Soviet leaders had … Stalin's Industralization drive … By 1932 there seem to have been at least one million such prisoners, and by 1935 there were more than two million, with camps located largely in the Arctic (such as Kolyma and Vorkuta) but also in Kazakhstan and elsewhere. In the Communist Party the Stalinist grip had become complete in 1930 with the expulsion of Bukharin, Tomsky, and Rykov from the Politburo and Rykov’s replacement as chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars (the leading group of government administrators). And there was a noticeable, if not a major, thaw, including the end of bread rationing in 1935. As a result of the 16th Congress, held in June–July 1930, and a plenum of the Central Committee in December of that year, the Politburo consisted solely of Stalinists: Stalin, Kliment Voroshilov, Lazar Kaganovich, Mikhail Kalinin, Kirov, Stanislav Kossior, Valerian Kuybyshev, Molotov, Sergo (Grigory) Ordzhonikidze, and Yan Rudzutak, with Anastas Mikoyan, Vlas Chubar, and Grigory Petrovsky as candidate members, while Andrey Andreyev was head of the Central Control Commission, the party’s disciplinary body. The first was the claim by the communists that they were implementing a rational and fulfillable plan. This culminated in the much publicized Stakhanovite movement. The Soviet Union was especially devastated due to the mass destruction of the industrial base that it had built up in the 1930s. Even then, fearing Allied involvement, Stalin granted terms little worse than those offered in 1939 and dropped the Kuusinen “government.” The U.S.S.R. gained the Karelian Isthmus, certain border changes in the north, and a base on the Gulf of Finland. The Civil War and the creation of the U.S.S.R. There had been a number of concentration camps from 1918 on, and 65 existed in 1922. In the Soviet Union, the Great Depression helped solidify Joseph Stalin's grip on power. The characteristic fault was “giantism”—the party’s inclination to build on the largest and most ostentatious scale. Historical Events for the Year 1930. 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